2017-07-05 10:23:52来源:网络


  Questions 46 t0 50 are based on the following passage.

  Open data-sharers are still in the minority in many fields,Although many rescarechers broadly agree that public access to raw data would accelerate science- because other scientists might be able to make advances not foreseen by the data's producers -most are reluctant to post the results of their own labours online (see Nature 461, 160-163; 2009) When Wolkovich, for instance, went hunting for the data from the 50 studies in her meta-analysis, only 8 data sets were available online, and many of the researchers whom she e-mailed refused to share their work Forced to extract data from tables or flgures in publications,Wolkovich's team could conduct only limited analyses

  Some communities have agreed to share online - geneticists, for example, post DNA sequences at the GenBank repository, and astronomers are accustomed to accessing images of galaxies and stars from, say,the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a telescope that has observed some 500 million objects - but these remain the exception, not the rule Historically, scientists have objected to sharing for many reasons: it is a lot of work; until recently, good databases did not exist; grant funders were not pushing for sharing; it has been difficult to agree on standards for formatting data and the contextual information called metadata; and there

  is no agreed way to assign credit for data

  But the barriers are disappearing in part because journals and funding agencies worldwide are encouraging scientists to make their data public. Last year, the Royal Society in London said in its report Science as an Open Enterprise that scientists need to shift away from a research culture where data is viewed as pricate preserve " Funding agencies note that data paid for with public money should be public information, and the scientific community is recognizing that data can now be shared digitally in ways that were not possible before To match the growing demand, services are springing up to make it easier to publish research products online and enable other researchers to discover and cite them

  Although exhortations to share data often concentrate on the moral advantages of sharing, the practice is not purely altruistic Researchers who share get plenty of personal benefits.including more connections with colleagues,improved visibility and increased citations The most successful sharers - those whose data are downloaded and cited the most often - get noticed, and their work gets used For example, one of the most popular data sets on multidisciplinary repository Dryad is about wood density around the world; it has been downloaded 5,700 times. Co-author Amy Zanne, a biologist at George Washington University in Washington DC, thinks that users probably range from climate-change researchers wanting to estimate how much carbon is stored in biomass, to foresters looking for information on different grades of' timber "I would much prefer to have my data used by the maximum number of people to ask their own questions," she says "It's important to allow readers and reviewers to see exactly how you arrive at your results Publishing data and code allows your science to be reproducible "

  46 What do many researchers generally accept?

  A It is imperative to protest scientist' patents

  B Repositories are essential to scientitle research

  C Open data sharing is most important to medical science

  D.Open data sharing is conducive to scientific advancement

  47 What is the attitude of most researchers towards making their own data public?

  A Opposed

  B Ambiguous

  C Liberal

  D Neutral

  48 According to the passage, what might hinder open data sharing"

  A The fear of massive copying

  B The lack of a research culture

  C.The belief that resacrch is private intellectual property

  D. The concern that certain agencies may make a profit out of it

  49 What helps lift some of the barriers to open data sharing?

  A The ever-growing demand for big data

  B The advantage of digital technology

  C The changing attitude of journals and funders.

  D The trend of social and economic development.

  50 Dryad serves as an example to show how open data sharing ___

  A is becoming increasingly popular

  B benefits shares and users alike

  C makes researchers successful

  D saves both money and labor

  Passage two

  Question 51 t0 55 are based on the following passage.

  Beginning in the late sixteenth century, it became fashionable for young aristocrats to visit Europe and above all Rome, as the culmination(终极) of their classical education Thus the idea of the Grand Tour was born, a practice which introduced Englishmen, Germans, Scandinavians, and also Americans to the art and

  culture of France and Italy for the next 300 years.Travel was arduous and costly throughout the period.possible only for a privileged class the same that produced gentlemen scientists authors antique experts and patrons of the arts.

  The Grand Tourist was typically a young man with a thorough background in Greek and Latin literature as well as some leisure time some means and some interest in art.The German traveler Johann Winckelmann pioneered the field of art history with his comprehensive study of Greek and Roman sculpture.he was portrayed by his friend Anton Raphael Mengs at the beginning of his long residence in Rome.Most Grand Tourist however stayed for briefer periods and set out with souvenirs of their travels as well as an understanding of art and architecture formed by exposure to great masterpieces.

  Since there were few museums anywhere in Eurpe before the end of the 18th century Grand Tourists often saw paintings and sculptures by gaining admission to private collections. and many were eager to acquire examples of Greco-Roman and Italian art for their own collections In England, where

  architecture was increasingly seen as an aristocratic pursuit, noblemen often applied what they learned from the villas of Palladio in Veneto and the evocative ruins of Rome to their own country houses and gardens

  51 What is said about the Grand Tour?

  A)It was fashionable among young people of the time

  B)It was unaffordable for ordinary people

  C)It produced some famous European artists

  D)It made a compulsory part of college education

  52 What did Grand Tourists have in common?

  A)They had much geographic knowledge

  B)They were courageous and venturesome

  C)They were couragcous and venturesome

  D)They had enough travel and outdoor-life experience

  53 How did Grand Tourists benefit from their travel?

  A)They found inspiration in the world's greatest masterpieces

  B)They got a better understanding of early human civilization

  C)They developed an interest in the origin of modern art forms

  D)They gained some knowledge of classical art and architecture

  54 Why did many Grand Tourists visit the private collections?

  A)They could buy unique souvenirs there to take back home

  B)Europe hardly had any museums before 19th century

  C)They found the antiques there more valuable

  D)Private collections were of greater variety

  55 How dis the Grand Tour influence the architecture in England?

  A)There appeared more and more Roman-style buildings

  B)Many aristocrats began to move into Roman-style villas

  C)Aristocrats' country houses all had Roman-style gardens

  D)Italian architects were hired to design houses and gardens


  46. D) Open data sharing is conducive to scientific advancement.

  47. A) Opposed.

  48. C) The belief that research data is private intellectual property.

  49. C) The changing attitude of journals and funders.

  50. B) benefits sharers and users alike

  51. [B] It was unaffordable for ordinary people.

  52. [C] They were versed in literature and interested in art.

  53. [D] They gained some knowledge of classical art and architecture.

  54. [B] Europe hardly had any museums before the 19th century.

  55. [A] There appeared more and more Roman-style buildings.




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