2018-01-05 12:12:16来源:网络


  Conversation One

  M: And now, for the latter side of the news, Europe is setting an example for the rest of the world when it comes to food waste.

  W: That’s right, John. This week, the Italian government passed legislation that aims to dramatically reduce the amount of food waste in the country. New laws have been put into place that will make it easier for farms and supermarkets to donate and sell foods to those who are in need.

  M: Yes, in an addition to this, businesses will now be rewarded for successful efforts to cut food waste.

  W: Italy is not the only country to focus on reducing food waste. Just earlier this year, the European parliament voted in favor of legislation that would stop grocery giants from unfair trading practices that result in overproduction, thus creating waste.

  M: In France, the government has banned supermarkets from throwing away edible foods and imposed harsh penalties on businesses that fail to comply with the regulations.

  W: While there is still much progress to be made, other countries could learn a thing or two from the example set by France and Italy. In the United Sates, up to 40% of all food goes uneaten. Despite the fact that one in seven American households lacks regular access to good food, one major cause of this problem is the confusion over food expiration labels, which are currently not regulated by the government.

  M: All this could change soon. This wave of new laws in Europe will definitely put more pressure on law makers to reduce food waste here. We turn now to a spokesperson from Harvard University’s Food Law and Policy Clinic for more on the story. And now, let’s welcome professor Edward Baker to speak to us.

  1: What does the woman say about the new laws in Italy?

  2: What did the European parliament do to reduce food waste?

  3: What has the French government done recently?

  4: What is the major cause of food waste in the United States?

  Conversation Two

  M: Thank you for calling the South Avenue Department Store. How can I be assistant to you today?

  W: Hello. I was in your store this past weekend and bought a few items. Yesterday, my friend told me that the annual anniversary sales had begun. It turned out she bought the same sweater as I did but for a much lower price.

  M: Yes. Our annual anniversary sales started on Monday. We do offer price adjustments for seven days of purchase to ensure our customers’ satisfaction. You said you did the purchase here this past weekend?

  W: Yes. I was shopping in your store last Sunday afternoon.

  M: That would definitely fall within the price adjustment window. Do you have an account with us? We can credit your account directly with the difference if you wish. Otherwise, we can send a gift card by mail if you prefer.

  W: Crediting my account will be wonderful. Thank you. Now, you’ve mentioned that there is a sale going on. I do remember a dress I quietly like when I was in the shop on Sunday. Is it on offer as well.

  M: Yes, ma’am. All the new arrivals are 15-20% off. In addition to the sale, we are running a promotion for complementary tailoring if needed

  W: That’s good news. The dress really caught my eye but I did have some concerns about the length. How long will your alteration take?

  M: Our tailoring department guarantees alteration to be completed within five working days. If you like, I can send a size for you. If you are able to come this afternoon, you can give your name to the sales manager. And they will be able to assist you.

  5: What do we learn about the Sax Department Store?

  6: What did the man say about Sax Department Store’s offers?

  7: What did the woman want the store to do to address the price difference?

  8:What is the service Sax department store offers in addition to the promotion sale?

  Passage 1

  Barbie dolls have a particular look to them. They are thin, tall, long legged and virtually unlike any real human being. Although, over the years, barbies had more than 180 different careers, including football coach, sign language teacher, ambassador, president and astronaut. Her body shape hasn’t changed much. Last year, MATEL, the company that makes Barbie dolls, added some barbies to its line to have a different skin tones and hair textures. There are now barbies 17 skin tones, 22 eye colours and 24 hair styles that choose from. Last year, MATEL also gave barbie a flat foot rather than 4 fingers to be in heels all the time like original barbie is. Now, they are introducing new barbies with 3 slightly different body shapes. On the original, tall and thin barbies would continue to be sold. In the statement on its website, the company says, it wants barbies to look more like a real people and to give girls everywhere, infinitely more ways that spark their imagination and play out the stories. Although many people say the new barbies are stepping in the right direction. Some people say they don’t go far enough. They say the new Barbie shapes could be even more different from the original tall-thin barbies. Sales of Barbie dolls has been falling every years since 2005 according to CBC news. The toys aren’t in stores yet, but they will be sold online at the Barbie website starting this week for 9 dollars and 99 cents.

  9. What do we know about the original Barbie dolls?

  10. Why do some people feel unsatisfied with new Barbie dolls?

  11. Where will the new Barbie dolls be sold first?

  Passage 2

  The earliest printed book we known today appeared in China in the year 868, and metal type was used in Korea at the beginning of the fifteen century, but it was in Germany around the year 1415, that the printing press used in movable metal type was invented. Capitalism turned printing from an invention into an industry , right from the start, book printing in publishing were organized on capitalist lines, the biggest sixteen century printer 一个人名 had 24 printing prices and employed more than a hundred workers, only a small faction of the population was literate, but production of books grow as an extraordinary speed. By 500 hundred some 20 million volumes had already been printed, the immediate factors printing was to increase the circulation of works that were already popular in the hand-written form, while less popular works went out of circulation. Publishers were interested only in books that were sold very quickly in sufficient numbers to cover the costs of production and make profit.

  Thus, while printing enormously increased access to books by making cheap, high volume production possible, it also reduces choice. The great culture impact of printing was facilitated the growth of national languages, most early books were printed in Latin, but the mark for Latin was limited, and it is pursuit of large markets, the book trade soon produced translation into the national languages, and merging at that time.

  Printing indeed played the key role in standardizing and stabilizing this languages by fixing them print and producing dictionaries and grammar books.

  12. What happened in Germany around the 1415?

  13. What does the speaker say about the printer 人名?

  14. What is the immediate affect of the printing?

  15. What was the great culture impact the printing?

  Recording One

  You dream about being a movie star. You live in a big house in Hollywood, go to the Oscars every year, and win. You will be rich and famous. Wait a minute. You also hate having your photos taken and you are very shy. So how could you ever become a movie star? Choosing a right career can be hard. Many people graduate from school or college not knowing what they want to do with their lives and get a job without really thinking about it. For some, things work out fine. But others often find themselves stuck in a job they hate. Your working life lasts in average 40 years, so it’s important to find a job you like and feel enthusiastic about.

  Luckily, there are many ways you can get help to do this. The Australian website WWW. Careers online. com, compares choosing a career with going to the movies. Before you see a movie, you find out what films are showing. The site suggests you should do the same with your career. Find out what jobs are available and what your options are. Next, decide which movie you like best. If you are not a romantic person, you won’t want to see a love story. In other words, with your career, you should decide which job will suit your personality. Finally, decide how to get movie tickets and find out where the theater is before you go. With your career, you need to find information about where you can work and how to get a job in that profession.

  So, how do you start? Begin by asking yourself some questions, certain life experiences. Have you travelled overseas? Do you have any extra certificates at your degree? Such as the first aid license, for example. Your physical state and build can also affect which jobs you can do. A person, for example, who is allergic to cats will probably never become an animal doctor. Flight attendants, firefighters and police officers have to be over a certain height and be physically fit. Your personality matters too. Are you outgoing or shy? If you like working alone, a job that requires lots of team work might not suit you.

  Choosing a career can take time and a lot of thought. However, when you know you can look forward to working in your dream job, you will be glad you thought it through.

  16. What does the speaker say about many college graduates?

  17. What does the Australia website suggest you do first to find a suitable job?

  18. What should you think about when you look for the right job according to the Australian website?

  Recording 2

  Kwanzaa is a cultural festival, during which African-American celebrate and reflect upon their rich heritage as the products of the two worlds. It begins December 26th and last for seven days. Kwanzaa was founded in 1966 by Dr. Karenga, a college professor and African-American leader, who believed that a special holiday could help African Americans meet their goals of building strong families, learning about their history and creating a sense of unity. After conducting extensive research in which he studied the festivals of many African groups of people, he decided that the new holiday should be a harvest or first fruit’s celebration. In cooperating ideas from many different harvest traditions. Kwanzaa is a … word meaning the first fruits of the harvest. The east African language of … was chosen as an official language of Kwanzaa. Because it is a non-tribal language spoken by a large portion of the African population. Also its pronunciation is easy. Kwanzaa is based on seven principles which are unity, self-determination, collective work and responsibility, cooperative economics, purpose, creativity and faith. One principal is highlighted each day of the holiday. In preparation for the celebration, a astroy matters placed on the table. Along with the candle holder was seven candles. One black, three red and three green. The black candle represents the African-American people. The red is for their struggles, and the green represents their hopes for their future. Other items placed on our table are a variety of fruit is of comes gifts and communal unity cup for pouring and sharing drinks. Each day of Kwanzaa usually before the evening meal,family and friends gather around the table and someone lights the candle beginning with the black. After that,candles are lit alternatively from left to right. While the candles is being lit, a principal is recited then each person present takes turn to speak about the importance that the principle has to himself or herself. Next, the ceremony focuses on remembering those who've died. A selected person pours water or juice from the unity cup into a bowl. That person then drinks from the cup and raises it high saying “her thanmbi”,which means that let’s all pour together. All repeat “her thanmbi” seven times and each person drinks from the cup . Then they and names of African American leaders and heroes a cold out to and everyone reflects upon the great things these people did. The ceremony is followed by a meal, and then singing and perhaps listening to African music

  19.What does the speaker say about Kwanzaa?

  20. For what purpose did Doctor Karenga create the special holiday?

  21. What does the word Kwanzaa mean?

  22. What do people do while each candle is being let at the Kwanzaa celebration?

  Recording 3

  The Mediterranean diet is based upon the eating patterns of traditional cultures in the Mediterranean region. Several noted nutritionists in research projects have concluded that this diet is one of the most healthful in the world in terms of preventing such illnesses as heart disease and cancer and increasing life expectancy. The countries that have inspired Mediterranean diet all surround the Mediterranean Sea. These cultures have eating habits that developed over thousands of years. In Europe, parts of Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain and southern France adhere to principles of the Mediterranean diet as to the morocco, Indonesia, and North Africa. Parts of the Balkan region and turkey follow the diet as well as middle eastern countries like Lebanon and Syria, the Mediterranean region is warm and sunny and produces large supplies of fresh fruits and vegetables almost a year round that the people eat many times a day. Wine, bread, all of oil and nuts are other staples of the region. In the Mediterranean sea has historically yielded abundant quantities of fish. International interest in therapeutic qualities of Mediterranean diet began back in the late nineteen fifties. When medical researchers started to link the currency of heart disease with diet, Doctor Ansol Keths performed the epidemiological analysis of diets around the world. In titled of the seven countries study, it is considered one of the greatest studies of its kind ever performed. In it, Keths gathered data on heart disease in its potential causes from nearly thirty thousand men in Greece, Italy, Croatia, Serbia, Japan, Finland, the Netherlands and the United States. The study was conducted over period of decades. It concluded that the Mediterranean people in the study enjoyed some significant health advantages. The Mediterranean groups have lower mortality rates in all age brackets in form of all causes particularly from heart disease. The study also showed that the Mediterranean diet is as high as or higher in fat than other diets, obtaining up to forty percent of all its calories from fat. It has however, different patterns of fat intake. Mediterranean cooking, in its smaller amounts of saturated fat and higher amount of unsaturated fat, mostly in form of all of oil. Saturated fats are fats are found principally in meat and dairy products, although some nuts in vegetable oils also contain them. Saturated fats are used by the body to make cholesterol in high levels of cholesterol has since been directly related to heart disease.

  23. What has research concluded about the Mediterranean diet?

  24. What do we learn about the seven countries study?

  25. What do we learn about the Mediterranean people from the seven countries study?